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African American History Tour In Williamsburg

Virginia African American History: The Short, Sad History Of Lord Dunmore’s Royal Ethiopian Regiment

November 1st, 2019 Posted by African American History, Black History, tours No Comment yet

African American Soldiers And The Revolutionary War In Virginia

In November 1775, Lord Dunmore, the last royal Governor of Virginia signed a proclamation stating that any able bodied slave of a rebel master could run to his Royal Ethiopian regiment to fight the Americans and gain their freedom. Dunmore did not free the enslaved workers belonging to Loyalist Masters and he did not free his own slaves.

300 Enslaved African Americans Join Dunmore’s Army

Within a week of Dunmore signing the proclamation, over 300 enslaved workers ran to Norfolk, Virginia to join his army. The Patriots were terrified knowing their runaway slaves would now have guns. The Virginia Gazette advised slaves to “cling to your kind masters.” But in the end, around 800 runaway slaves fought in Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment. Their uniforms were emblazoned with the words, “Liberty to Slaves.”

african amercian history and the revolutionary warThe Attack On Great Bridge In Chesapeake Virginia

On November 15, Lord Dunmore called in his British troops to Kemp’s Landing to defend a large store of gunpowder that had been recently moved there from Norfolk. Militia companies from Princess Anne County, Virginia (present-day Virginia Beach) assembled to fight the British. Virginia’s inexperienced Militia fired too soon. Lord Dunmore’s disciplined regulars returned fire and most of the Patriot Militia scattered. This clear victory for the British made Lord Dunmore overconfident. He decided to attack the Patriots at Great Bridge (in present-day Chesapeake, Virginia.)

Early in the morning on December 10, 1775, The Royal Ethiopian regiment marched across the bridge with the other British troops. The British troops were within fifty feet of the Patriots who were hiding. The Patriots revealed themselves and fired rapidly, decimating the ranks, and the attack quickly turned into a panicked retreat. The battle lasted less than an hour. By the time it was over 100 British soldiers were dead or wounded. Lord Dunmore retreated to Norfolk and boarded his ships.

Lord Dunmore and his troops stayed on these ships in and around Norfolk until May, when he eventually retreated to Gwynn’s Island near the mouth of the Rappahannock River in the Chesapeake Bay. Being on these ships in the cold and damp weather caused a great deal of sickness, including smallpox. Smallpox was widespread in Great Britain — nearly all the British troops in America had caught it as children and those that hadn’t were inoculated before they left England. The enslaved that ran to the Royal Ethiopian Regiment had no immunity to the disease. This meant that smallpox was quickly an epidemic among the runaways. The situation on Gwynn’s Island became worse when typhoid fever also broke out. Slaves continued to run to Lord Dunmore’s Regiment, but because the high mortality rate among the Runaway slaves was so high the Royal Ethiopian Regiment never had more that 150 effective men.

The Fate Of African American Soldiers In The Royal Ethiopian african american soldiers in the revolutionary warRegiment

By July the remains of Dunmore’s forces sailed north to New York. The Patriot forces then took over the island and the scene that greeted them was a grisly one. Bodies of the Royal Ethiopian soldiers littered the coastline, smallpox victims thrown from the British ships as they sailed away. On the island itself the scene was even worse. One eyewitness wrote, “The deplorable condition of the miserable wretches left behind is beyond description.” The island now belonged to the dead and dying. The sick soldiers were lying out in the open or in brush tents, many of those in the tents were burned alive as soldiers sought to control the smallpox. Lord Dunmore’s Royal Ethiopian Regiment was gone, only in existence for one year. However, not all of the Royal Ethiopian Regiment died on Gwynn’s Island — one of the survivors was Titus Cornelius or, as he was later known, Colonel Tye. His story will be told in the next blog.

Williamsburg black history

Williamsburg Black History

February 4th, 2018 Posted by African American History, Black History, history, williamsburg No Comment yet

African American or Black History is a critical, and often inconvenient, expose of true unbiased American history. A history that does not paint America or Colonial Williamsburg as a bastion of freedom, but as a hypocritical battle zone of ideals falling way short of historical data.williamsburg on site history lectures and tours

Mistruths, historical spins, and suspicious omissions concerning Williamsburg Black or African American history make it critical to peruse through multiple sources, accounts, and critical thinking from multiple viewpoints. Luckily these resources exist for an accurate depiction of African American History, its role in Williamsburg Virginia and the United States.

Too Big A Task For One Article…Or Even Ten Historical Articles

History is a funny thing, I have often hear that history is written by the victors. By victors, those that got away with murder, lies, deceit, and a host of other things which make them more criminal then historian. Unfortunately they can omit that viewpoint. If you came out on top in history why would you want to sully that with something as inconvenient as the truth. But that is not history…that is marketing or historical marketing.

Here are some good starting points I found that give an unconventional viewpoint of African American history in the Pre-Revolutionary period concerning the plight of African Americans in this country. Here are some really notable finds from History.org. This particular history sight can give you links to some significant viewpoints and historical information to develop an understanding of African American historical data.

Williamsburg HistoryFinding Shocking Facts In Unexpected African American History

One section I would key in on is the section on finding slaves in unexpected places. A quick click of this link will quickly give you a new inconvenient perspective on how prevalent slavery was in the entire Colonies including the Northern States, which have often been historically recognized as bastions of freedom. Historical record shows that there were thousands of enslaved African Americans in towns like Boston and Philadelphia. Even more shocking is you find out that Benjamin Franklin was a slave owner. And apparently historical accounts showed that many slave owners had moral reservations about it. I guess truth is stranger than fiction.

 Take Up Your Rifle And Fight.. Freedom Optional

Another article link that was well worth the click was that talking about African Americans who fought in the Revolutionary War. Even with a proclamation allowing the enslaved Africans to win freedom by fighting for the Colonial cause, this really wasn’t the case. Many fought for both sides, as slaves, and stayed that way at the end of the war. In 18th Century America, the British believed in the institution of slavery just as their Colonial brethren.

I guess freedom is very selective, even for those who die on the battlefield, winning it for others.

Wiliamsburg African American History Tour

Our most popular tour by far. This is, in many ways, for the reasons we have talked here. In a world where historical re-enactments seem so convincing, how do you know you are getting the whole story. Unfortunately you don’t. Let us be that contrasting viewpoint to a very convincing display of Colonial American history. Make sure that the people, accounts, and period costumes making that seem so convincing, are accurate.

Williamsburg History Tour

We also offer a walk about history tour of Williamsburg Virginia. This is a fantastic journey into the history of this Colonial microcosm of 17th century life around the political birth of our nation.

Join Us. Here is a link to more information


References

FINDING SLAVES IN UNEXPECTED PLACES

In-text: (History.org, 2018)

Your Bibliography: History.org. (2018). Finding Slaves in Unexpected Places. [online] Available at: http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Winter05-06/slavery.cfm [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018].

 

THE AFRICAN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

In-text: (History.org, 2018)

Your Bibliography: History.org. (2018). The African American Experience. [online] Available at: http://www.history.org/almanack/life/af_amer/aalife.cfm [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018].